In this modern era, organisations have become more people-centric than ever — especially since this approach pays great dividends in terms of enhanced employee performance and lower attrition rates. Human Resource Management or HRM plays a key role in allowing employers and organisations to reach their objective.
The functions of HRM hold great significance in the growth and overall development of the organisations. After all, when the employees grow and develop their skills, the organisation will automatically experience growth and expansion. Some of the primary functions of HRM include job design and job analysis, recruitment/ hiring and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance management, managerial relations and labour relations.
So, let us find out more about each of these seven functions of HRM.
1. Job design and job analysis
One of the foremost functions of HRM is job design and job analysis. Job design involves the process of describing duties, responsibilities and operations of the job. To hire the right employees based on rationality and research, it is imperative to identify the traits of an ideal candidate who would be suitable for the job. This can be accomplished by describing the skills and character traits of your top-performing employee. Doing so will help you determine the kind of candidate you want for the job. You will be able to identify your key minimum requirements in the candidate to qualify for the job.
Job analysis involves describing the job requirements, such as skills, qualification and work experience. The vital day-to-day functions need to be identified and described in detail, as they will decide the future course of action while recruiting.
2. Employee hiring and selection
Recruitment is one of the primary functions of human resource management. HRM aims to obtain and retain qualified and efficient employees to achieve the goals and objectives of the company. All this starts with hiring the right employees out of the list of applicants and favourable candidates.
An HRM helps to source and identify the ideal candidates for interview and selection. The candidates are then subjected to a comprehensive screening process to filter out the most suitable candidates from the pool of applicants. The screened candidates are then taken through different interview rounds to test and analyse their skills, knowledge and work experience required for the job position.
Once the primary functions of HRM in recruitment are completed, and the candidate gets selected after rounds of interviews, they are then provided with the job offer in the respective job positions. This process is important because these selected employees will, after all, help the company realise its goals and objectives.
3. Employee training & development
Imparting proper training and ensuring the right development of the selected candidates is a crucial function of HR. After all, the success of the organisation depends on how well the employees are trained for the job and what are their growth and development opportunities within the organisation.
The role of HR should be to ensure that the new employees acquire the company-specific knowledge and skills to perform their task efficiently. It boosts the overall efficiency and productivity of the workforce, which ultimately results in better business for the company.
HRM plays a very crucial role in preparing employees for bigger tasks and responsibilities, which leads to the holistic development of employees at work. And an organisation which provides ample growth and development opportunities to its employees is considered to be a healthy organisation.
4. Compensation and Benefits
Benefits and compensation form the major crux of the total cost expenditure of an organisation. It is a must to plug the expenses, and at the same time, it is also necessary to pay the employees well. Therefore, the role of human resource management is to formulate attractive yet efficient benefits and compensation packages to attract more employees into the workplace without disturbing the finances of the company.
The primary objective of the benefits and compensation is to establish equitable and fair remuneration for everyone. Plus, HR can use benefits and compensation as a leverage to boost employee productivity as well as establish a good public image of the business.
Therefore, one of the core HR department functions is to lay down clear policies and guidelines about employee compensation and their available benefits. One of the functions of HR manager is to ensure the effective implementation of these policies and guidelines. This creates equality and builds transparency among the employees and the management within the organisation. After all, the level of employee satisfaction at work is directly proportional to the compensation and benefits they receive.
5. Employee performance management
The next activity on HR functions list is effective employee performance management. Effective performance management ensures that the output of the employees meets the goals and objective of the organisation. Performance management doesn’t just focus on the performance of the employee. It also focuses on the performance of the team, the department, and the organisation as a whole.
The list of HR functions for performance management includes:
- Developing a proper job description
- Initiating an appropriate selection process to hire the right candidates for the job positions
- Providing the right training and education needed to enhance the performance of the employees
- Enabling real-time feedback and coaching employees to boost efficiency among them
- Conducting performance reviews monthly or quarterly to discuss the positives and the improvement areas of employees
- Formulating a proper exit interview process to understand why experienced employees choose to leave the company
- Designing a proper appraisal and compensation system that recognises and rewards the workforce for their effort and hard work
6. Managerial relations
Relationships in employment are normally divided into two parts — managerial relations and labour relations. While labour relations is mainly about the relationship between the workforce and the company, managerial relations deals with the relationship between the various processes in an organisation.
Managerial relations determine the amount of work that needs to be done in a given day and how to mobilise the workforce to accomplish the objective. It is about giving the appropriate project to the right group of employees to ensure efficient completion of the project. At the same time, it also entails managing the work schedules of employees to ensure continued productivity. It is essential that HR handles such relations effectively to maintain the efficiency and productivity of the company.
7. Labour relations
Cordial labour relations are essential to maintain harmonious relationships between employees at the workplace. At the workplace, many employees work together towards a single objective. However, individually, everyone is different from the other in characteristics. Hence, it is natural to observe a communication gap between two employees. If left unattended, such behaviours can spoil labour relations in the company.
Therefore, it is crucial for an HR to provide proper rules, regulations and policies about labour relations. This way, the employees have a proper framework within which they need to operate. Therefore, every employee will be aware of the policies which will create a cordial and harmonious work environment.
Such a structured and calm work atmosphere also helps with improving performance and aching higher targets.
HRM plays a major role in the smooth functioning of the organisation. The process starts with formulating the right policies for the job requirements and ends with ensuring a successful business growth of the company. Therefore, HRM works as an invisible agent that binds together all the aspects of the organisation to ensure smooth progress.